9. Acknowledgements

Contents (Quick links)

1. Methodology
2. Key findings
3. The Red List Y Rolley Jiarg 
4. The Amber List Y Rolley Amber 
5. The Green List Y Rolley Glass 
6. The Black List Y Rolley Doo
7. Not assessed
8. Full results
9. Endorsements
10. Acknowledgements

Birds of Conservation Concern in the Isle of Man (BoCCIoM) 2021
Ushagyn ta Feme Coadey ayns Ellan Vannin 2021

Birds of Conservation Concern in the Isle of Man (BoCCIoM) 2021 Ushagyn ta Feme Coadey ayns Ellan Vannin 2021 is the first comprehensive assessment of the conservation status of all regularly occurring species of wild bird in the self-governing British Crown Dependency of the Isle of Man.

The assessment uses the tried and tested methods of the Birds of Conservation Concern format.

A traffic light system of Red (greatest concern), Amber (moderate concern) and Green (least concern) is used to indicate the conservation status of each species as determined by BoCCIoM 2021.

Identifying the species of greatest concern enables national prioritisation of Manx conservation policy, strategy and funding. As the definitive, up-to-date account of the populations and ranges of birds in the Isle of Man, BoCCIoM 2021 is an essential resource for international conservationists wishing to consider the significance of Manx birds and their habitats.

BoCCIoM 2021 is endorsed by the Manx Ornithological Society, Manx Wildlife Trust, Manx National Heritage and the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds.

Birds of Conservation Concern in the Isle of Man (BoCCIoM) 2021 Ushagyn ta Feme Coadey ayns Ellan Vannin 2021
Click on the image to download a PDF version
of the BoCCIoM 2021 Summary Booklet
1. A robust, proven methodology

BoCCIoM 2021 closely follows the proven methodology of BoCC UK and BoCC Ireland—ensuring results are broadly comparable, while adjusting for the Island’s smaller territorial size.

The criteria used for assessment include: recent and historical changes in population and range; localisation of breeding and wintering ranges; breeding and wintering rarity; population importance in an international context; and the current conservation status of species in a European and global context.

A species is Red- or Amber-listed if one or more of the assessed criteria for that species reaches the defined threshold. Manx BirdLife is grateful to the many seasonal and volunteer surveyors who, over many years, have undertaken the fieldwork and reporting required to amass the extensive datasets used in this first ever BoCCIoM assessment.

2. Key findings
Curlew (Neil G Morris)
Curlew (Crottag): BoCCIoM 2021 Red List © Neil G Morris

Of 332 species on the official Manx List of Birds, all 166 regularly occurring species were fully assessed for BoCCIoM 2021, comprising:

  • breeding species with at least one confirmed or probable breeding record from 2006 onwards (i.e. since the start of the second Manx Bird Atlas survey);
  • overwintering species and passage migrants whose occurrence is considered to have been at least annual in recent years.

Of these 166 fully assessed species:

Ground-nesting species such as Curlew, Lapwing and Skylark are in jeopardy, threatened by loss of habitat, disturbance and predation. Seabirds such as Razorbill, Black Guillemot, Shag and Puffin are declining in the face of challenging ‘local’ and global changes to their marine environment. Even familiar birds such as Linnet, Meadow Pipit and Kestrel are declining—following on the heels of Yellowhammer and Corn Bunting which, although once abundant on the Island, are now extinct as native Manx birds.

You may download a PDF copy of the summary booklet for free.

3. The Red List Y Rolley Jiarg

Species that are considered to be of the greatest conservation concern:

  1. Teal Anas crecca
  2. Pochard Aythya ferina
  3. Eider Somateria mollissima
  4. Long-tailed Duck Clangula hyemalis
  5. Cuckoo Cuculus canorus
  6. Stock Dove Columba oenas
  7. Water Rail Rallus aquaticus
  8. Corn Crake Crex crex
  9. Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus
  10. Lapwing Vanellus vanellus
  11. Curlew Numenius arquata
  12. Bar-tailed Godwit Limosa lapponica
  13. Black-tailed Godwit Limosa limosa
  14. Knot Calidris canutus
  15. Curlew Sandpiper Calidris ferruginea
  16. Woodcock Scolopax rusticola
  17. Snipe Gallinago gallinago
  18. Redshank Tringa totanus
  19. Kittiwake Rissa tridactyla
  20. Black-headed Gull Chroicocephalus ridibundus
  21. Great Black-backed Gull Larus marinus
  22. Herring Gull Larus argentatus
  23. Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus
  24. Little Tern Sternula albifrons
  25. Common Tern Sterna hirundo
  26. Arctic Tern Sterna paradisaea
  27. Razorbill Alca torda
  28. Black Guillemot Cepphus grylle
  29. Puffin Fratercula arctica
  30. Fulmar Fulmarus glacialis
  31. Shag Phalacrocorax aristotelis
  32. Barn Owl Tyto alba
  33. Long-eared Owl Asio otus
  34. Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus
  35. Kingfisher Alcedo atthis
  36. Kestrel Falco tinnunculus
  37. Merlin Falco columbarius
  38. Skylark Alauda arvensis
  39. Grasshopper Warbler Locustella naevia
  40. Ring Ouzel Turdus torquatus
  41. Redwing Turdus iliacus
  42. Spotted Flycatcher Muscicapa striata
  43. Whinchat Saxicola rubetra
  44. Tree Sparrow Passer montanus
  45. Meadow Pipit Anthus pratensis
  46. Twite Linaria flavirostris
  47. Linnet Linaria cannabina
  48. Yellowhammer Emberiza citrinella

4. The Amber List Y Rolley Amber

Species that are considered to be of moderate conservation concern:

  1. Red Grouse Lagopus lagopus
  2. Brent Goose Branta bernicla
  3. Pink-footed Goose Anser brachyrhynchus
  4. White-fronted Goose Anser albifrons
  5. Mute Swan Cygnus olor
  6. Whooper Swan Cygnus cygnus
  7. Common Shelduck Tadorna tadorna
  8. Shoveler Spatula clypeata
  9. Gadwall Mareca strepera
  10. Mallard Anas platyrhynchos
  11. Pintail Anas acuta
  12. Tufted Duck Aythya fuligula
  13. Common Scoter Melanitta nigra
  14. Goldeneye Bucephala clangula
  15. Goosander Mergus merganser
  16. Red-breasted Merganser Mergus serrator
  17. Swift Apus apus
  18. Moorhen Gallinula chloropus
  19. Coot Fulica atra
  20. Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis
  21. Grey Plover Pluvialis squatarola
  22. Ringed Plover Charadrius hiaticula
  23. Turnstone Arenaria interpres
  24. Ruff Calidris pugnax
  25. Sanderling Calidris alba
  26. Dunlin Calidris alpina
  27. Purple Sandpiper Calidris maritima
  28. Jack Snipe Lymnocryptes minimus
  29. Common Sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos
  30. Common Gull Larus canus
  31. Common Guillemot Uria aalge
  32. Red-throated Diver Gavia stellata
  33. Black-throated Diver Gavia arctica
  34. Great Northern Diver Gavia immer
  35. Manx Shearwater Puffinus puffinus
  36. Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo
  37. Grey Heron Ardea cinerea
  38. Little Egret Egretta garzetta
  39. Hen Harrier Circus cyaneus
  40. Buzzard Buteo buteo
  41. Great Spotted Woodpecker Dendrocopos major
  42. Peregrine Falco peregrinus
  43. Chough Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax
  44. Raven Corvus corax
  45. Sand Martin Riparia riparia
  46. Swallow Hirundo rustica
  47. House Martin Delichon urbicum
  48. Wood Warbler Phylloscopus sibilatrix
  49. Willow Warbler Phylloscopus trochilus
  50. Sedge Warbler Acrocephalus schoenobaenus
  51. Reed Warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus
  52. Garden Warbler Sylvia borin
  53. Lesser Whitethroat Curruca curruca
  54. Goldcrest Regulus regulus
  55. Starling Sturnus vulgaris
  56. Mistle Thrush Turdus viscivorus
  57. Black Redstart Phoenicurus ochruros
  58. Wheatear Oenanthe oenanthe
  59. House Sparrow Passer domesticus
  60. Yellow Wagtail Motacilla flava
  61. Grey Wagtail Motacilla cinerea
  62. Tree Pipit Anthus trivialis
  63. Brambling Fringilla montifringilla
  64. Greenfinch Chloris chloris
  65. Lesser Redpoll Acanthis cabaret
  66. Crossbill Loxia curvirostra
  67. Snow Bunting Plectrophenax nivalis
  68. Reed Bunting Emberiza schoeniclus

5. The Green List Y Rolley Glass

Species that are considered to be of least conservation concern:

  1. Greylag Goose Anser anser
  2. Wigeon Mareca penelope
  3. Feral Pigeon Columba livia
  4. Woodpigeon Columba palumbus
  5. Collared Dove Streptopelia decaocto
  6. Golden Plover Pluvialis apricaria
  7. Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus
  8. Little Stint Calidris minuta
  9. Greenshank Tringa nebularia
  10. Mediterranean Gull Ichthyaetus melanocephalus
  11. Glaucous Gull Larus hyperboreus
  12. Iceland Gull Larus glaucoides
  13. Sandwich Tern Thalasseus sandvicensis
  14. Great Skua Stercorarius skua
  15. Arctic Skua Stercorarius parasiticus
  16. Storm Petrel Hydrobates pelagicus
  17. Gannet Morus bassanus
  18. Osprey Pandion haliaetus
  19. Sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus
  20. Marsh Harrier Circus aeruginosus
  21. Magpie Pica pica
  22. Jackdaw Coloeus monedula
  23. Rook Corvus frugilegus
  24. Carrion Crow Corvus corone
  25. Hooded Crow Corvus cornix
  26. Waxwing Bombycilla garrulus
  27. Coal Tit Periparus ater
  28. Blue Tit Cyanistes caeruleus
  29. Great Tit Parus major
  30. Long-tailed Tit Aegithalos caudatus
  31. Chiffchaff Phylloscopus collybita
  32. Yellow-browed Warbler Phylloscopus inornatus
  33. Blackcap Sylvia atricapilla
  34. Common Whitethroat Curruca communis
  35. Firecrest Regulus ignicapilla
  36. Wren Troglodytes troglodytes
  37. Treecreeper Certhia familiaris
  38. Blackbird Turdus merula
  39. Fieldfare Turdus pilaris
  40. Song Thrush Turdus philomelos
  41. Robin Erithacus rubecula
  42. Red-breasted Flycatcher Ficedula parva
  43. Redstart Phoenicurus phoenicurus
  44. Stonechat Saxicola rubicola
  45. Dunnock Prunella modularis
  46. Pied Wagtail Motacilla alba
  47. Rock Pipit Anthus petrosus
  48. Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs
  49. Goldfinch Carduelis carduelis
  50. Siskin Spinus spinus

6. The Black List Y Rolley Doo

Species that formally regularly nested in the Isle of Man but are now considered extirpated as native Manx breeders:

  1. Quail Coturnix coturnix
  2. Nightjar Caprimulgus europaeus
  3. Rock Dove Columba livia (wild population)
  4. Corn Crake Crex crex
  5. Redshank Tringa totanus
  6. Common Tern Sterna hirundo
  7. Red Kite Milvus milvus
  8. White-tailed Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla
  9. Kingfisher Alcedo atthis
  10. Merlin Falco columbarius
  11. Ring Ouzel Turdus torquatus
  12. Dipper Cinclus cinclus
  13. Twite Linaria flavirostris
  14. Corn Bunting Emberiza calandra


Red-breasted Merganser © Neil G Morris
Red-breasted Merganser (Sheeltey yiarg): Twice a Manx breeder © Neil G Morris

The following additional species have nested occasionally in the Isle of Man without establishing a long-term pattern of breeding, and for which there are no definite or probable breeding records in the period from 2006 onwards: Red-breasted Merganser Mergus serrator, Ruddy Duck Oxyura jamaicensis, Golden Plover Pluvialis apricaria, Common Sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos, Sandwich Tern Thalasseus sandvicensis, Tawny Owl Strix aluco and Redstart Phoenicurus phoenicurus.

The history of Tawny Owl Strix aluco on the Island is uncertain. It is a vagrant and has been recorded breeding on one occasion (Sharpe & Morris 2020). Popular confusion with the calls of Long-eared Owl hinders attempts to determine if the species persists.

Williamson (1940) believed Storm Petrel Hydrobates pelagicus (aka ‘Mother Carey’s Chicken’) to be a “lost [Manx] breeding species”, but to this day breeding has never been proved. Off the Calf of Man, Chicken Rock is named after storm-driven wrecks of this species, alluding to its former abundance in the Irish Sea. Though undoubtedly present throughout summer while on feeding sorties from nearby colonies (and probably augmented by the presence of non-breeding individuals), Storm Petrels today are rarely-observed in Manx waters.

Gannet © Neil G Morris
Gannet (Gant): Former Manx breeder? © Neil G Morris

Williamson (1941) also makes the case that a Gannetry existed on the Calf of Man. Whatever its size, it had ceased to exist by the 19th Century, probably earlier. Though Gannets Morus bassanus visit throughout the year, there is just one modern record of the species alighting on the Island’s cliffs (Hill et al. 2019).

7. Not assessed

Of 332 species on the official Manx List of Birds, 166 species were not short-listed for assessment for BoCCIoM 2021, being those:

  • formerly breeding species that no longer breed;
  • formerly wintering species or passage migrants which no longer regularly occur;
  • non-native species;
  • rare or vagrant species.

The species not fully assessed for BoCCIoM 2021 are:

  1. Red-legged Partridge Alectoris rufa
  2. Grey Partridge Perdix perdix
  3. Quail Coturnix coturnix
  4. Pheasant Phasianus colchicus
  5. Canada Goose Branta canadensis
  6. Barnacle Goose Branta leucopsis
  7. Taiga/Tundra Bean Goose Anser fabalis/serrirostris
  8. Bewick's Swan Cygnus columbianus
  9. Garganey Spatula querquedula
  10. Blue-winged Teal Spatula discors
  11. American Wigeon Mareca americana
  12. Green-winged Teal Anas carolinensis
  13. Red-crested Pochard Netta rufina
  14. Ferruginous Duck Aythya nyroca
  15. Ring-necked Duck Aythya collaris
  16. Scaup Aythya marila
  17. King Eider Somateria spectabilis
  18. Surf Scoter Melanitta perspicillata
  19. Velvet Scoter Melanitta fusca
  20. Smew Mergellus albellus
  21. Ruddy Duck Oxyura jamaicensis
  22. Nightjar Caprimulgus europaeus
  23. Alpine Swift Tachymarptis melba
  24. Great Spotted Cuckoo Clamator glandarius
  25. Yellow-billed Cuckoo Coccyzus americanus
  26. Pallas's Sandgrouse Syrrhaptes paradoxus
  27. Rock Dove Columba livia
  28. Turtle Dove Streptopelia turtur
  29. Mourning Dove Zenaida macroura
  30. Spotted Crake Porzana porzana
  31. Baillon's Crake Zapornia pusilla
  32. Common Crane Grus grus
  33. Red-necked Grebe Podiceps grisegena
  34. Great Crested Grebe Podiceps cristatus
  35. Slavonian Grebe Podiceps auritus
  36. Black-necked Grebe Podiceps nigricollis
  37. Stone-curlew Burhinus oedicnemus
  38. Black-winged Stilt Himantopus himantopus
  39. Avocet Recurvirostra avosetta
  40. American Golden Plover Pluvialis dominica
  41. Little Ringed Plover Charadrius dubius
  42. Kentish Plover Charadrius alexandrinus
  43. Dotterel Charadrius morinellus
  44. Broad-billed Sandpiper Calidris falcinellus
  45. Temminck's Stint Calidris temminckii
  46. Baird's Sandpiper Calidris bairdii
  47. White-rumped Sandpiper Calidris fuscicollis
  48. Buff-breasted Sandpiper Calidris subruficollis
  49. Pectoral Sandpiper Calidris melanotos
  50. Long-billed Dowitcher Limnodromus scolopaceus
  51. Great Snipe Gallinago media
  52. Wilson's Phalarope Phalaropus tricolor
  53. Red-necked Phalarope Phalaropus lobatus
  54. Grey Phalarope Phalaropus fulicarius
  55. Green Sandpiper Tringa ochropus
  56. Lesser Yellowlegs Tringa flavipes
  57. Wood Sandpiper Tringa glareola
  58. Spotted Redshank Tringa erythropus
  59. Sabine's Gull Xema sabini
  60. Little Gull Hydrocoloeus minutus
  61. Ring-billed Gull Larus delawarensis
  62. Yellow-legged Gull Larus michahellis
  63. Bridled Tern Onychoprion anaethetus
  64. Roseate Tern Sterna dougallii
  65. Black Tern Chlidonias niger
  66. Pomarine Skua Stercorarius pomarinus
  67. Long-tailed Skua Stercorarius longicaudus
  68. Little Auk Alle alle
  69. Great Auk Pinguinus impennis
  70. Leach's Petrel Oceanodroma leucorhoa
  71. Cory's Shearwater Calonectris borealis
  72. Sooty Shearwater Ardenna grisea
  73. Great Shearwater Ardenna gravis
  74. Balearic Shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus
  75. Barolo Shearwater Puffinus baroli
  76. White Stork Ciconia ciconia
  77. Magnificent Frigatebird Fregata magnificens
  78. Spoonbill Platalea leucorodia
  79. Bittern Botaurus stellaris
  80. Little Bittern Ixobrychus minutus
  81. Night-heron Nycticorax nycticorax
  82. Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis
  83. Purple Heron Ardea purpurea
  84. Great White Egret Ardea alba
  85. Honey-buzzard Pernis apivorus
  86. Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos
  87. Goshawk Accipiter gentilis
  88. Montagu's Harrier Circus pygargus
  89. Red Kite Milvus milvus
  90. Black Kite Milvus migrans
  91. White-tailed Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla
  92. Rough-legged Buzzard Buteo lagopus
  93. Scops Owl Otus scops
  94. Snowy Owl Bubo scandiacus
  95. Tawny Owl Strix aluco
  96. Little Owl Athene noctua
  97. Hoopoe Upupa epops
  98. Roller Coracias garrulus
  99. Bee-eater Merops apiaster
  100. Wryneck Jynx torquilla
  101. Green Woodpecker Picus viridis
  102. Red-footed Falcon Falco vespertinus
  103. Hobby Falco subbuteo
  104. Gyr Falcon Falco rusticolus
  105. Ring-necked Parakeet Psittacula krameri
  106. Red-backed Shrike Lanius collurio
  107. Great Grey Shrike Lanius excubitor
  108. Woodchat Shrike Lanius senator
  109. Red-eyed Vireo Vireo olivaceus
  110. Golden Oriole Oriolus oriolus
  111. Jay Garrulus glandarius
  112. Marsh Tit Poecile palustris
  113. Bearded Tit Panurus biarmicus
  114. Woodlark Lullula arborea
  115. Shore Lark Eremophila alpestris
  116. Short-toed Lark Calandrella brachydactyla
  117. Calandra Lark Melanocorypha calandra
  118. Western Bonelli's Warbler Phylloscopus bonelli
  119. Eastern Bonelli's Warbler Phylloscopus orientalis
  120. Pallas's Warbler Phylloscopus proregulus
  121. Dusky Warbler Phylloscopus fuscatus
  122. Greenish Warbler Phylloscopus trochiloides
  123. Great Reed Warbler Acrocephalus arundinaceus
  124. Aquatic Warbler Acrocephalus paludicola
  125. Blyth's Reed Warbler Acrocephalus dumetorum
  126. Marsh Warbler Acrocephalus palustris
  127. Melodious Warbler Hippolais polyglotta
  128. Icterine Warbler Hippolais icterina
  129. Barred Warbler Curruca nisoria
  130. Sardinian Warbler Curruca melanocephala
  131. Subalpine Warbler sp. Curruca iberiae/subalpina/cantillans
  132. Nuthatch Sitta europaea
  133. Rose-coloured Starling Pastor roseus
  134. Bluethroat Luscinia svecica
  135. Thrush Nightingale Luscinia luscinia
  136. Nightingale Luscinia megarhynchos
  137. White-throated Robin Irania gutturalis
  138. Pied Flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca
  139. Desert Wheatear Oenanthe deserti
  140. Western Black-eared Wheatear Oenanthe hispanica
  141. Eastern Black-eared Wheatear Oenanthe melanoleuca
  142. Dipper Cinclus cinclus
  143. Richard's Pipit Anthus richardi
  144. Tawny Pipit Anthus campestris
  145. Olive-backed Pipit Anthus hodgsoni
  146. Pechora Pipit Anthus gustavi
  147. Red-throated Pipit Anthus cervinus
  148. Water Pipit Anthus spinoletta
  149. Hawfinch Coccothraustes coccothraustes
  150. Bullfinch Pyrrhula pyrrhula
  151. Common Rosefinch Carpodacus erythrina
  152. Common Redpoll Acanthis flammea
  153. Arctic Redpoll Acanthis hornemanni
  154. Serin Serinus serinus
  155. Lapland Bunting Calcarius lapponicus
  156. Corn Bunting Emberiza calandra
  157. Ortolan Bunting Emberiza hortulana
  158. Cirl Bunting Emberiza cirlus
  159. Little Bunting Emberiza pusilla
  160. Rustic Bunting Emberiza rustica
  161. Black-headed Bunting Emberiza melanocephala
  162. Dark-eyed Junco Junco hyemalis
  163. White-throated Sparrow Zonotrichia albicollis
  164. Song Sparrow Melospiza melodia
  165. Baltimore Oriole Icterus galbula
  166. Yellow-rumped Warbler Setophaga coronata

8. Full results
BoCCIoM 2021 DATA SHEETS: Red, Amber and Green Lists
BoCCIoM 2021 DATA SHEETS for Red, Amber and Green Lists

Click on the image to download a PDF version of the detailed results for the 166 fully assessed species, including assessment criteria and data sheets with species scores (A4 document, 11 pages).

9. BoCCIoM 2021 is endorsed by:
Manx Ornithological Society  Manx Wildlife Trust  The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds
Isle of Man Department for Environment, Food and Agriculture (DEFA) Manx National Heritage
10. Acknowledgements

Manx BirdLife would like to thank the Scheinberg Family without whose support BoCCIoM 2021 would not have been possible.

The authors are indebted to Gillian Gilbert, Principal Conservation Scientist for RSPB Northern Ireland. We also thank David Bellamy, Pat Cullen, Adam Denard, Anne-Marie McDevitt, Allen S. Moore, Alice Morris, Louise Samson, Aron Sapsford and Richard Selman for their past and recent inputs to the BoCCIoM project and assistance with this paper.

We should also like to thank the many fieldworkers and support teams who have helped to compile the datasets used in this assessment.

Translation into Manx Gaelic has been kindly provided by https://www.culturevannin.im.

Finally, we thank the Manx Ornithological Society, Manx Wildlife Trust, Manx National Heritage and the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds for their endorsement of the project and its results.

Neil G. Morris
Christopher M. Sharpe MBE
July 2021